Ⅰ Introduction
When connected to a voltage source, capacitors are basic passive devices that can store an electrical charge on their plates. The capacitor, like a miniature rechargeable battery, has the ability or "capacity" to store energy in the form of an electrical charge, producing a potential difference (Static Voltage) across its plates.
Capacitors come in a variety of sizes and shapes, ranging from tiny capacitor beads used in resonance circuits to enormous power factor correction capacitors, but they always store charge.
this video shows how capacitors work
Catalog
Ⅱ Types of Capacitor
From very small delicate trimming capacitors used in oscillator or radio circuits to enormous power metalcan type capacitors used in high voltage power correction and smoothing circuits, capacitors are available.
The dielectric used between the plates is commonly used to make comparisons between different types of capacitors. There are variable varieties of capacitors, just like resistors, that allow us to adjust their capacitance value for use in radio or "frequency tuning" circuits.
Metallic foil is interwoven with thin sheets of either paraffinimpregnated paper or Mylar as the dielectric material in commercial capacitors. Because the metal foil plates are rolled up into a cylinder to produce a compact box with the insulating dielectric material sandwiched in between, some capacitors resemble tubes.
Ceramic materials are frequently used to make small capacitors, which are subsequently sealed with epoxy resin. Capacitors play a crucial role in electronic circuits in any case, therefore here are a few of the most "common" capacitor types available.
2.1 Dielectric Capacitor
When a constant variation in capacitance is necessary for tuning transmitters, receivers, and transistor radios, dielectric capacitors are normally of the variable variety. Multiplate airspaced variable dielectric capacitors have a set of fixed plates (the stator vanes) and a set of movable plates (the rotor vanes) that move in between the fixed plates.
The overall capacitance value is determined by the position of the moving plates concerning the fixed plates. When the two sets of plates have entirely meshed together, the capacitance is usually at its highest. With breakdown voltages in the thousands of volts, high voltage tuning capacitors have relatively large spacings or air gaps between the plates.
2.2 Variable Capacitor Symbol
Trimmers are preset type variable capacitors that are available in addition to continuously variable varieties. These are typically small devices that may be modified or "preset" to a specific capacitance value with a small screwdriver, and are available in very low capacitances of 500pF or less, and are nonpolarized.
variable capacitor symbol
2.4 Axial Lead Type
Long thin strips of thin metal foil with the dielectric material sandwiched between them are twisted into a tight roll and then sealed in paper or metal tubes for film and foil capacitors.
To lessen the possibility of tears or punctures in the film, these film types require a significantly thicker dielectric film and are thus better suited to lower capacitance values and bigger case sizes.
axialleadtype
Metalized foil capacitors have the conductive film metalized sprayed directly onto each side of the dielectric, giving the capacitor selfhealing capabilities and allowing thinner dielectric films to be used. For a given capacitance, this enables for larger capacitance values and smaller case sizes. Film and foil capacitors are typically employed in situations that require more power and precision.
2.5 Ceramic Capacitors
Ceramic capacitors, also known as Disc capacitors, are created by coating two sides of tiny porcelain or ceramic disc with silver and stacking them together to form a capacitor. A single ceramic disc of roughly 36mm is utilized for very low capacitance values. Ceramic capacitors have a high dielectric constant (HighK) and are available in tiny physical sizes, allowing for relatively high capacitances.
ceramic capacitor
Because they are nonpolarized and exhibit huge nonlinear changes in capacitance with temperature, they are employed as decoupling or bypass capacitors. Ceramic capacitors range in size from a few picofarads to one or two microfarads, but their voltage ratings are often modest.
A threedigit code is usually inscribed on the body of ceramic capacitors to identify their capacitance value in picofarads. The first two digits usually represent the capacitor's value, while the third digit represents the number of zeros to be added. A ceramic disc capacitor marked 103, for example, would indicate 10 and 3 zeros in picofarads, which is equal to 10,000 pF or 10nF.
The numerals 104, for example, represent 10 and 4 zeros in picofarads, which is comparable to 100,000 pF or 100nF, and so on. The digits 154 on the ceramic capacitor image above represent 15 and 4 zeros in picofarads, which is comparable to 150,000 pF, 150nF, or 0.15F. To signify their tolerance value, letter codes are occasionally employed, such as J = 5%, K = 10%, M = 20%, and so on.
2.6 Electrolytic Capacitors
When very large capacitance values are required, electrolytic capacitors are typically utilized. Instead of employing a very thin metallic film layer for one of the electrodes, a semiliquid electrolyte solution in the form of jelly or paste is employed (usually the cathode).
The dielectric is a very thin layer of oxide that is produced electrochemically in the manufacturing process and has a thickness of fewer than ten microns. Because the insulating layer is so thin, capacitors with a big capacitance value can be made in a small physical size because the distance between the plates, d, is so short.
electrolytic capacitor
The majority of electrolytic capacitors are polarized, which means that the DC voltage applied to the capacitor terminals must be of the correct polarity, i.e. positive to the positive terminal and negative to the negative terminal, or the insulating oxide layer will be broken down and permanent damage may result.
The polarity of all polarized electrolytic capacitors is indicated with a negative sign to signify the negative terminal, which must be followed.
Due to their huge capacitance and small size, electrolytic capacitors are commonly employed in DC power supply circuits to help reduce ripple voltage or for coupling and decoupling applications. Electrolytic capacitors have a low voltage rating, which means that they can't be utilized on AC supply because of their polarization. Aluminium Electrolytic Capacitors and Tantalum Electrolytic Capacitors are the two most common types of electrolytes.
2.7 Aluminium Electrolytic Capacitors
The plain foil type and the etched foil type are the two varieties of Aluminum Electrolytic capacitors. These capacitors have extremely high capacitance values for their size due to the thickness of the aluminum oxide coating and the high breakdown voltage.
aluminium electrolytic capacitor
A DC current is used to anodize the capacitor's foil plates. The polarity of the plate material is established during the anodizing process, which defines which side of the plate is positive and which side is negative.
The aluminum oxide on the anode and cathode foils has been chemically etched to increase surface area and permittivity, which makes the etched foil type different from the plain foil type. This results in a smaller capacitor than a normal foil type of comparable value, but it has the disadvantage of not being able to handle strong DC currents. Their tolerance range is also fairly high, reaching up to 20%. Capacitance values for aluminum electrolytic capacitors typically range from 1uF to 47,000uF.
Plain foil electrolytes are better suited as smoothing capacitors in power supply, while etched foil electrolytes are best employed in the coupling, DC blocking, and bypass circuits. However, because aluminum electrolytes are “polarized” devices, inverting the applied voltage on the leads will damage the insulating layer within the capacitor, as well as the capacitor itself. The capacitor's electrolyte, on the other hand, aids in the healing of a damaged plate if the damage is minor.
The electrolyte has the power to reanodize the foil plate since it can selfheal a damaged plate. The electrolyte can remove the oxide layer from the foil if the anodizing process is reversed, as it would if the capacitor was connected with reverse polarity. Because the electrolyte can conduct electricity, if the aluminum oxide layer is removed or destroyed, current can flow from one plate to the other, causing the capacitor to fail, "so be alert."
2.8 Tantalum Electrolytic Capacitors
Tantalum Electrolytic Capacitors and Tantalum Beads come in both wet (foil) and dry (solid) electrolytic varieties, with dry tantalum being the most prevalent. Solid tantalum capacitors have a second terminal of manganese dioxide and are physically smaller than analogous aluminum capacitors.
Tantalum oxide's dielectric characteristics are superior to those of aluminum oxide, resulting in reduced leakage currents and greater capacitance stability, making it ideal for blocking, bypassing, decoupling, filtering, and timing applications.
Tantalum capacitors, although being polarized, can withstand being linked to a reverse voltage considerably better than aluminum capacitors, but they are rated at much lower operating voltages. Solid tantalum capacitors are commonly employed in circuits with low AC voltages compared to DC voltages.
Some tantalum capacitors, on the other hand, comprise two capacitors in one, connected negativetonegative to make a “nonpolarized” capacitor for use in low voltage AC circuits. The positive lead of a tantalum bead capacitor is usually identifiable by a polarity mark on the capacitor body, which has an oval geometrical shape. Capacitance values typically vary from 47nF to 470F.
2.9 Frequently Asked Questions About Different Types Of Capacitor
1. Which type of capacitor is best?
Class 1 ceramic capacitors offer the highest stability and lowest losses. They have high tolerance and accuracy and are more stable with changes in voltage and temperature. Class 1 capacitors are suitable for use as oscillators, filters, and demanding audio applications.
2. Does the type of capacitor matter?
Yes, the type of capacitor can matter. Different types of capacitor have different properties. Some of the properties that vary between capacitor types: polarized vs unpolarized.
3. Are all capacitors the same?
Not all capacitors are created equal. Each capacitor is built to have a specific amount of capacitance. The capacitance of a capacitor tells you how much charge it can store, more capacitance means more capacity to store charge.
4. Which type of capacitor is known as Polarised capacitor?
Electrolytic Capacitors. The Electrolytic Capacitors are the capacitors which indicate by the name that some electrolyte is used in it. They are polarized capacitors which have anode + and cathode − with particular polarities. A metal on which insulating oxide layer forms by anodizing is called as an Anode.
5.Which capacitors are not polarized?
Ceramic, mica and some electrolytic capacitors are nonpolarized. You'll also sometimes hear people call them "bipolar" capacitors. A polarized ("polar") capacitor is a type of capacitor that have implicit polarity  it can only be connected one way in a circuit.
Ⅲ The Capacitance of a Capacitor
The Farad (abbreviated to F) is the unit of capacitance and is named after the British physicist Michael Faraday. Capacitance is the electrical property of a capacitor and is the measure of a capacitor's ability to store an electrical charge onto its two plates.
When a charge of One Coulomb is stored on the plates by a voltage of One volt, a capacitor has a capacitance of One Farad. It's worth noting that capacitance, or C, is always positive and has no negative units. However, because the Farad is a relatively big unit of measurement on its own, submultiples such as microfarads, nanofarads, and picofarads are commonly used.
3.1 SI Unit of Capacitance
Capacitors are a common type of electrical component, and their values are usually stated in microfarads, F (or uF if a micro character is not available), nanofarads, nF, or picofarads, pF.
Microfarad (μF) 1μF = 1/1,000,000 = 0.000001 = 10^{6} F
Nanofarad (nF) 1nF = 1/1,000,000,000 = 0.000000001 = 10^{9} F
Picofarad (pF) 1pF=1/1,000,000,000,000 = 0.000000000001 = 10^{12} F
3.2 μF vs. nF vs. pF
Although most current circuits and component descriptions use the nomenclature F, nF, and pF to specify capacitor values, older circuit designs, circuit descriptions, and even the components themselves may employ a variety of nonstandard acronyms that aren't always evident.
The following are the main changes for the various capacitance submultiples:
MicroFarad, µF: Larger value capacitors, such as electrolytic capacitors, tantalum capacitors, and even some paper capacitors measured in microFarads, may have been labeled with uF, mfd, MFD, MF, or UF. All of these terms refer to the value in µF. Electrolytic and tantalum capacitors are commonly connected with this nomenclature.
NanoFarad, nF: Because nF or nanoFarads nomenclature was not frequently used prior to terminology standardization, this submultiple lacked a variety of abbreviations. The term nanofarad has gained in popularity in recent years, while it is still not widely used in some countries, with values given in huge numbers of picofarads, such as 1000pF for 1 nF, or fractions of a microfarad, such as 0.001 µF for a nanofarad. Ceramic capacitors, metalized film capacitors, including surface mount multilayer ceramic capacitors, and even some modern silver mica capacitors all use this terminology.
PicoFarad, pF: The value in picoFarads, pF, was again indicated using a variety of acronyms. MicroromicroFarads, mmfd, MMFD, uff, µµFwere among the terms used. All of these numbers are in pF. Picofarad capacitor values are commonly employed in radio frequency, RF circuits, and equipment. As a result, this nomenclature is most commonly associated with ceramic capacitors, however, it is also applied to silver mica capacitors and some film capacitors.
The conversion of values from one submultiple to the next has been aided by the standardization of terminology. It has resulted in a significant reduction in the potential for misunderstanding. Converting from µF to nF and pF is simpler. This is important when a capacitor value is listed in one way on a circuit diagram and another way on a list of electronic components distributors.
Because different electrical component manufacturers label components differently, the capacitance conversion table is highly useful. For example, some manufacturers label their equivalent capacitors as a fraction of a microfarad, while others label them as a fraction of a nanofarad, and so on. Electrical component wholesalers and retailers will prefer to adopt the manufacturer's nomenclature.
Similarly, circuit diagrams may use different symbols to represent components to maintain commonality, etc. As a result, being able to convert between picofarads, nanofarads, and microfarads, as well as vice versa, is beneficial. When the bill of materials or parts list for the circuit has values expressed in microfarads, µF, and picofarads, pF, this can aid identify components labeled in nanofarad values.
It is generally useful to be able to utilize a capacitance conversion calculator like the one above, but it is also important to be familiar with the conversions and popular equivalents, such as 1000pF = nanofarad and 100nF = 0.1µF.
These conversions become second nature while working with electrical components and designing electronic circuits, but the capacitance conversion tables and calculators can still be quite useful. Capacitors, as well as other electronic components like inductors, benefit from these conversions.
3.3 Frequently Asked Questions about the Capacitance of a Capacitor
1. What is capacitance in simple terms?
Capacitance is the ability of a system of electrical conductors and insulators to store electric charge when a potential difference exists between the conductors. Capacitance is expressed as a ratio of the electrical charge stored to the voltage across the conductors.
2.What is C in capacitance?
The capacitance C is the ratio of the amount of charge q on either conductor to the potential difference V between the conductors, or simply C = q/V.
3.What is difference between capacitor and capacitance?
Capacitance is nothing but the ability of a capacitor to store the energy in form of electric charge. In other words, the capacitance is the storing ability of a capacitor. It is measured in farads.
4.What is the formula of capacitor?
The governing equation for capacitor design is: C = εA/d, In this equation, C is capacitance; ε is permittivity, a term for how well dielectric material stores an electric field; A is the parallel plate area; and d is the distance between the two conductive plates.
5.What four factors affect capacitance?
The capacitance of a capacitor is affected by the area of the plates, the distance between the plates, and the ability of the dielectric to support electrostatic forces.
Ⅳ Capacitor Conversion: µFnFpF
The use of the nanofarad (nF) is less common in some fields, with values stated in fractions of a µF and huge multiples of picofarads (pF). When components marked in nanofarad are available, it may be necessary to convert to nanofards, nF in these circumstances.
When a circuit diagram or electronic components list mentions the value in picofarads, for example, and listings for an electronic component distributor or electronic components store state it in another way, it can be confusing.
Capacitor values can be in the 10^{9} range or even higher, thanks to the introduction of supercapacitors. The common prefixes pico (10^{12}), nano (10^{9}), and micro (10^{6}) are often used to avoid misunderstanding with high numbers of zeros connected to the values of different capacitors. When converting between them, a capacitor conversion chart or capacitor conversion table for the various capacitor values can be useful.
Another requirement for capacitance conversion is that the actual capacitance value is reported in picofarads in some capacitor marking systems, therefore the value must be converted to the more common nanofarads or microfarads.
4.1 Capacitor Conversion Chart
Microfarads ( µF)  Nanofarads(nF)  Picofarads(pF) 
0.000001  0.001  1 
0.00001  0.01  10 
0.0001  0.1  100 
0.001  1  1000 
0.01  10  10000 
0.1  100  100000 
1  1000  1000000 
10  10000  10000000 
100  100000  100000000 
4.2 Popular Capacitor Conversions
Capacitor values can be written in a few different ways. A ceramic capacitor, for example, is frequently assigned a value of 100nF. It is often interesting to realize that this is 0.1µF when utilized in circuits with electrolytic capacitors. These handy conversions can aid in the design, construction, and maintenance of circuits.
When building circuits or employing capacitors in any fashion, keeping these capacitor conversions in mind when values migrate from picofarads to nanofarads and then nanofarads to microfarads is typically beneficial.
A more comprehensive table of conversion factors to convert between the different values, nF to pF, µF to nF etc is given below.
Table of Conversion Factors to Convert between µF,nF and pF  
convert  multiply by: 
pF to nF  1 x 10^{3} 
pF to µF  1 x 10^{6} 
nF to pF  1 x 10^{3} 
nF to µF  1 x 10^{3} 
µF to pF  1 x 10^{6} 
µF to nF  1 x 10^{3} 
4.3 Frequently Asked Questions about Capacitor Conversion
1. Can I replace a capacitor with a higher uF?
An electric motor start capacitors can be replaced with a microfarad or UF equal to or up to 20% higher UF than the original capacitor serving the motor.
2.What happens if I use a higher uF capacitor?
The higher the number of microfarads, the more energy the capacitor can hold. In theory, if a device has a high uF, it will last longer in a power outage.
3.What happens if you use the wrong size capacitor?
If the wrong run capacitor is installed, the motor will not have an even magnetic field. This will cause the rotor to hesitate at those spots that are uneven. This hesitation will cause the motor to become noisy, increase energy consumption, cause performance to drop, and cause the motor to overheat.
4.Can I replace a capacitor with a lower capacitance?
Yes, it's possible given the necessary skills and tools. Yes, it's safe. The only rating that matters for safety is the rated voltage: if you put a higher voltage than the maximum you might see your cap explode.
5.Can I use a run capacitor in place of a start capacitor?
The capacitance and voltage ratings would have to match the original start capacitor specification. A start capacitor can never be used as a run capacitor, because it cannot not handle current continuously.
Ⅴ Capacitor Color Code
5.1 Capacitor Colour Code Tables
When the capacitance value is a decimal value, problems with the marking of the "Decimal Point" arise since it is easily overlooked, leading to a misunderstanding of the real capacitance value. Instead of the decimal point, letters like p (pico) or n (nano) are used to indicate the position and weight of the number.
A capacitor might be labeled as n47 = 0.47nF, 4n7 = 4.7nF, or 47n = 47nF, for example. Also, capacitors are occasionally labeled with the capital letter K to indicate a value of one thousand picoFarads, thus a capacitor marked 100K would be 100 x 1000pF or 100nF.
An International colorcoding scheme was devised many years ago as a simple manner of identifying capacitor values and tolerances to reduce the confusion regarding letters, numbers, and decimal points. The Capacitor Colour Code system, which consists of colored bands (in spectral order) and whose meanings are given below, is a system that consists of colored bands (in spectral order).
Band Colour  Digit A  Digit B  Multiplier D  Tolerance (T) > 10pf  Tolerance (T) < 10pf  Temperature Coefficient (TC) 
Black  0  0  x1  ± 20%  ± 2.0pF  
Brown  1  1  x10  ± 1%  ± 0.1pF  33×106 
Red  2  2  x100  ± 2%  ± 0.25pF  75×106 
Orange  3  3  x1,000  ± 3%  150×106  
Yellow  4  4  x10,000  ± 4%  220×106  
Green  5  5  x100,000  ± 5%  ± 0.5pF  330×106 
Blue  6  6  x1,000,000  470×106  
Violet  7  7  750×106  
Grey  8  8  x0.01  +80%,20%  
White  9  9  x0.1  ± 10%  ± 1.0pF  
Gold  x0.1  ± 5%  
Silver  x0.01  ± 10% 
Capacitor Colour Code Table
Band Colour  Voltage Rating (V)  
Type J  Type K  Type L  Type M  Type N  
Black  4  100  10  10  
Brown  6  200  100  1.6  
Red  10  300  250  4  35 
Orange  15  400  40  
Yellow  20  500  400  6.3  6 
Green  25  600  16  15  
Blue  35  700  630  20  
Violet  50  800  
Grey  900  25  25  
White  3  1000  2.5  3  
Gold  2000  
Silver 
Capacitor Voltage Colour Code Table
Capacitor Voltage Reference
Type J– Dipped Tantalum Capacitors.
Type K– Mica Capacitors.
Type L– Polyester/Polystyrene Capacitors.
Type M– Electrolytic 4 Band Capacitors.
Type N– Electrolytic 3 Band Capacitors.
5.2 Color Codes of Different Capacitors
1.Metalised Polyester Capacitor
2. Disc & Ceramic Capacitor
For many years, unpolarized polyester and mica molded capacitors were coded using the Capacitor Colour Code system. Although this color coding method is no longer in use, many “old” capacitors can still be found. Small capacitors, such as film or disk kinds, now comply with the BS1852 Standard and its new replacement, BS EN 60062, which replaces the colors with a letter or number coding system.
5.3 Frequently Asked Questions about Capacitor Color Code
1. What do capacitor colors mean?
All the color bands painted on the capacitors body are used to indicate the capacitance value and capacitance tolerance. The color codes used to represent the capacitance values and capacitance tolerance is similar to that used to represent resistance values and resistance tolerance.
2.How do you read a capacitor code?
If you have a capacitor that has nothing other than a threedigit number printed on it, the third digit represents the number of zeros to add to the end of the first two digits. The resulting number is the capacitance in pF. For example, 101 represents 100 pF: the digits 10 followed by one additional zero.
3.Which type of capacitor is available in color code?
A color code was used on polyester capacitors for many years. It is now obsolete, but of course there are many still around. The colors should be read like the resistor code, the top three color bands giving the value in pF. Ignore the 4th band (tolerance) and 5th band (voltage rating).
4.Are capacitors color coded?
The capacitors use a capacitor color code similar to the resistors color code (3, 4 or 5 bands). The first two colors indicate significant digits of the value of the capacity (in pF), the next colour is the corresponding power of 10, the other two colors are optional and indicate tolerance and maximum voltage.
Ⅵ Capacitor Code
6.1 Types of Capacitor Code
For example, a capacitor labeled 474J should be read as 47 times the value listed in Table 1 corresponding to the third number, in this case, 10000: 47 * 10000 = 470000 pF = 470 nF = 0.47µF, with the J indicating a 5% tolerance. If a temperature coefficient is present, the second letter will be it. You'll rapidly learn to tell whether a capacitor's value is expressed in pF, nF, or µF based on its size and kind.
The capacitance of a capacitor designated 2A474J is encoded as mentioned above; the two initial signs are the voltage rating, which can be decoded from table 2 below. According to the EIA standard, 2A is a 100VDC rating.
Some capacitors are only marked 0.1 or 0.01, mostly in these cases the values are given in µF.
Some small capacitance capacitors contain an R between the numbers, such as 3R9, which indicates that the value is less than 10pF and has nothing to do with resistance. 3R9 has a 3.9pF value.
Table 1 – Capacitor codes with letters and tolerances
3rd number  Multiply with  Letter  Tolerance 
0  1  D  0.5pF 
1  10  F  1% 
2  100  G  2% 
3  1,000  H  3% 
4  10,000  J  5% 
5  100,000  K  10% 
6  1,000,000  M  20% 
7  Not used  M  20% 
8  0.01  P 
+100%/0% 
9  0.1  Z 
+80%/20% 
Table 2A – Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) – DC voltage code table
0E = 2.5 VDC  2A = 100 VDC  3A = 1 kVDC 
0G = 4.0 VDC  2Q = 110 VDC  3L = 1.2 kVDC 
0L = 5.5 VDC  2B = 125 VDC  3B = 1.25 kVDC 
0J = 6.3 VDC  2C = 160 VDC  3N = 1.5 kVDC 
1A = 10 VDC  2Z = 180 VDC  3C = 1.6 kVDC 
1C = 16 VDC  2D = 200 VDC  3D = 2 kVDC 
1D = 20 VDC  2P = 220 VDC  3E = 2.5 kVDC 
1E = 25 VDC  2E = 250 VDC  3F = 3 kVDC 
1V = 35 VDC  2F = 315 VDC  3G = 4 kVDC 
1G = 40 VDC  2V = 350 VDC  3H = 5 kVDC 
1H = 50 VDC  2G = 400 VDC  3I = 6 kVDC 
1J = 63 VDC  2W = 450 VDC  3J = 6.3 kVDC 
1M = 70 VDC  2J = 630 VDC  3U = 7.5 kVDC 
1U = 75 VDC  2I = 650 VDC  3K = 8 kVDC 
1K = 80 VDC  2K = 800 VDC 
Table 2B – Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) – AC voltage code table
2Q = 125 VAC  2T = 250 VAC  2S = 275 VAC 
2X = 280 VAC  2F = 300 VAC  I0 = 305 VAC 
L0 = 350 VAC  2Y = 400 VAC  P0 = 440 VAC 
Q0 = 450 VAC  V0 = 630 VAC 
Table 3 – Capacitor code table
picofarad (pF)  nanofarad (nF)  microfarad (µF)  Capacitor Code 
1 pF capacitor code  0.001 nF capacitor code  0.000001 µF capacitor code  10 
1.5 pF capacitor code  0.0015 nF capacitor code  0.0000015 µF capacitor code  1R5 
2.2 pF capacitor code  0.0022 nF capacitor code  0.0000022 µF capacitor code  2R2 
3.3 pF capacitor code  0.0033 nF capacitor code  0.0000033 µF capacitor code  3R3 
3.4 pF capacitor code  0.0039 nF capacitor code  0.0000039 µF capacitor code  3R9 
3.5 pF capacitor code  0.0047 nF capacitor code  0.0000047 µF capacitor code  4R7 
5.6 pF capacitor code  0.0056 nF capacitor code  0.0000056 µF capacitor code  5R6 
6.8 pF capacitor code  0.0068 nF capacitor code  0.0000068 µF capacitor code  6R8 
8.2 pF capacitor code  0.0082 nF capacitor code  0.0000082 µF capacitor code  8R2 
10 pF capacitor code  0.01 nF capacitor code  0.00001 µF capacitor code  100 
15 pF capacitor code  0.015 nF capacitor code  0.000015 µF capacitor code  150 
22 pF capacitor code  0.022 nF capacitor code  0.000022 µF capacitor code  220 
33 pF capacitor code  0.033 nF capacitor code  0.000033 µF capacitor code  330 
47 pF capacitor code  0.047 nF capacitor code  0.000047µF capacitor code  470 
56 pF capacitor code  0.056 nF capacitor code  0.000056 µF capacitor code  560 
68 pF capacitor code  0.068 nF capacitor code  0.000068 µF capacitor code  680 
82 pF capacitor code  0.082 nF capacitor code  0.000082 µF capacitor code  820 
100 pF capacitor code  0.1 nF capacitor code  0.0001 µF capacitor code  101 
120 pF capacitor code  0.12 nF capacitor code  0.00012 µF capacitor code  121 
130 pF capacitor code  0.13 nF capacitor code  0.00013µF capacitor code  131 
150 pF capacitor code  0.15 nF capacitor code  0.00015 µF capacitor code  151 
180 pF capacitor code  0.18 nF capacitor code  0.00018 µF capacitor code  181 
220 pF capacitor code  0.22 nF capacitor code  0.00022 µF capacitor code  221 
330 pF capacitor code  0.33 nF capacitor code  0.00033 µF capacitor code  331 
470 pF capacitor code  0.47 nF capacitor code  0.00047 µF capacitor code  471 
560 pF capacitor code  0.56 nF capacitor code  0.00056 µF capacitor code  561 
680 pF capacitor code  0.68 nF capacitor code  0.00068 µF capacitor code  681 
750 pF capacitor code  0.75 nF capacitor code  0.00075 µF capacitor code  751 
820 pF capacitor code  0.82 nF capacitor code  0.00082 µF capacitor code  821 
1000 pF capacitor code  1 / 1n / 1 nF capacitor code  0.001 µF capacitor code  102 
1500 pF capacitor code  1.5 / 1n5 / 1.5 nF capacitor code  0.0015 µF capacitor code  152 
2000 pF capacitor code  2 / 2n / 2 nF capacitor code  0.002 µF capacitor code  202 
2200 pF capacitor code  2.2 / 2n2 / 2.2 nF capacitor code  0.0022 µF capacitor code  222 
3300 pF capacitor code  3.3 / 3n3 / 3.3 nF capacitor code  0.0033 µF capacitor code  332 
4700 pF capacitor code  4.7 / 4n7 / 4.7 nF capacitor code  0.0047 µF capacitor code  472 
5000 pF capacitor code  5 / 5n / 5 nF capacitor code  0.005 µF capacitor code  502 
5600 pF capacitor code  5.6 / 5n6 / 5.6 nF capacitor code  0.0056 µF capacitor code  562 
6800 pF capacitor code  6.8 / 6n8 / 6.8 nF capacitor code  0.0068 µF capacitor code  682 
10000 pF capacitor code  10 / 10n / 10 nF capacitor code  0.01 µF capacitor code  103 
15000 pF capacitor code  15 / 15n / 15 nF capacitor code  0.015 µF capacitor code  153 
22000 pF capacitor code  22 / 22n / 22 nF capacitor code  0.022 µF capacitor code  223 
33000 pF capacitor code  33 / 33n / 33 nF capacitor code  0.033 µF capacitor code  333 
47000 pF capacitor code  47 / 47n / 47 nF capacitor code  0.047 µF capacitor code  473 
68000 pF capacitor code  68 / 68n / 68 nF capacitor code  0.068 µF capacitor code  683 
100000 pF capacitor code  100 / 100n / 100 nF capacitor code  0.1 µF capacitor code  104 
150000 pF capacitor code  150 / 150n / 150 nF capacitor code  0.15 µF capacitor code  154 
200000 pF capacitor code  200 / 200n / 200 nF capacitor code  0.20 µF capacitor code  204 
220000 pF capacitor code  220 / 220n / 220 nF capacitor code  0.22 µF capacitor code  224 
330000 pF capacitor code  330 / 330n / 330nF capacitor code  0.33 µF capacitor code  334 
470000 pF capacitor code  470 / 470n / 470nF capacitor code  0.47 µF capacitor code  474 
680000 pF capacitor code  680 nF capacitor code  0.68 µF capacitor code  684 
1000000 pF capacitor code  1000 nF capacitor code  1.0 µF capacitor code  105 
1500000 pF capacitor code  1500 nF capacitor code  1.5 µF capacitor code  155 
2000000 pF capacitor code  2000 nF capacitor code  2.0 µF capacitor code  205 
2200000 pF capacitor code  2200 nF capacitor code  2.2 µF capacitor code  225 
3300000 pF capacitor code  3300 nF capacitor code  3.3 µF capacitor code  335 
4700000 pF capacitor code  4700 nF capacitor code  4.7 µF capacitor code  475 
6800000 pF capacitor code  6800 nF capacitor code  6.8 µF capacitor code  685 
10000000 pF capacitor code  10000 nF capacitor code  10 µF capacitor code  106 
15000000 pF capacitor code  15000 nF capacitor code  15 µF capacitor code  156 
20000000 pF capacitor code  20000 nF capacitor code  20 µF capacitor code  206 
22000000 pF capacitor code  22000 nF capacitor code  22 µF capacitor code  226 
33000000 pF capacitor code  33000 nF capacitor code  33 µF capacitor code  336 
47000000 pF capacitor code  47000 nF capacitor code  47 µF capacitor code  476 
68000000 pF capacitor code  68000 nF capacitor code  68 µF capacitor code  686 
100000000 pF capacitor code  100000 nF capacitor code  100 µF capacitor code  107 
330000000 pF capacitor code  330000 nF capacitor code  330 µF capacitor code  337 
470000000 pF capacitor code  470000 nF capacitor code  470 µF capacitor code  477 
680000000 pF capacitor code  680000 nF capacitor code  680 µF capacitor code  687 
1000000000 pF capacitor code  1000000 nF capacitor code  1000 µF capacitor code  108 
6.2 Frequently Asked Questions about Capacitor Code
1. What is the code of a capacitor?
Generally, the actual values of Capacitance, Voltage or Tolerance are marked onto the body of the capacitors in the form of alphanumeric characters. For example, a capacitor can be labeled as, n47 = 0.47nF, 4n7 = 4.7nF or 47n = 47nF and so on.
2.What does the numbers on a capacitor mean?
The first two numbers represent the value in picofarads, while the third number is the number of zeroes to be added to the first two. For example, a 4.7 μF capacitor with a voltage rating of 25 volts would bear the marking E476.
3.What is the value of a capacitor?
Capacitor values can be of over 109 range, and even more as super capacitors are now being used. To prevent confusion with large numbers of zeros attached to the values of the different capacitors the common prefixes pico (10 ^{12} ), nano (10 ^{9}) and micro (10 ^{6}) are widely used.
4.How can you determine the value of a capacitor?
The value of capacitors can be determined by several ways depending up on the type of capacitor like electrolytic, disc, film capacitors, etc. These methods include value or number printed on the body of the capacitor or color coding of the capacitor.
5.How can I determine the capacitance of an unknown capacitor?
To determine an unknown capacitance using an oscilloscope , a dc power source such as a 9V battery, a known resistance, a switch and the capacitor are all connected in series. An oscilloscope probe tip and ground lead are connected across the capacitor. Additionally, you need a short wire jumper to shunt across the capacitor.
Ⅶ Capacitor Code Calculator
7.1 Capacitor Safety Discharge Calculator Tool
This Capacitor Safety Discharge Calculator helps to determine the discharge rate of a capacitor at known capacitance and charge through a fixedvalue resistor. Enter the initial voltage, time, resistance, and capacitance into the calculator. The calculator will display the total voltage discharged and remaining. Many factors need to be considered when choosing a discharge resistor. Safety standards require the voltage across a capacitor to reach a safe voltage before a person is able to touch it. In the USA, standards such as UL, OSHA, NTA, ETL, MET, etc. will have the requirements available for the needs of your product.
Capacitor Safety Discharge Calculator Tool 
7.2 Series and Parallel Capacitance Calculator
This tool calculates the overall capacitance value for multiple capacitors connected either in series or in parallel.
Series and Parallel Capacitance Calculator 
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